Trehalose is a naturally occurred disaccharide and was first discovered in a bacterium grown on rye by Wiggers in 1832.
Introduction of Trehalose
Trehalose is a naturally occurred disaccharide and was first discovered in a bacterium grown on rye by Wiggers in 1832. The research followed indicated that trehalose exists widely in nature, mostly in plants and microorganism, such as eatable mushroom, seaweed, legumes, shrimp, brewer’s and fermented yeast foods in daily life.
Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar consisting of two glucose molecules linked by
α , α -1, 1-glycosidic bond and is one of most stable sugar in the world. During the research of dehydration of plant cells, scientists found that trehalose can effectively prevent cell membrane, protein and other molecules from damage upon drying, and keep the natural biological character after re-hydration of the dried plants. Some insects that can keep alive even under the conditions of hyperthermia, deep-coldness, dehydrating etc, is largely attributed to the existence of trehalose as the main components. It has been proved from the abundant experimental results that trehalose can form a special protective layer around the protein and other biomolecules, efficiently protecting biologicals under harsh conditions such as hyperthermia, deep-coldness, hypertonia, dehydrating, and keep intact their biological characteristics. Trehalose is a kind of sugar that preserves life. “Trehalose is not only useful for the food industry. For some organisms, it is the difference between life and death” comments appeared in the issue 17 July 2000 of Nature (www.nature.com/nsu/000720/000720-3.html). Other sugars (such as sucrose and glucose) don’t have this performance. One of the most important fact about trehalose is that both exogenous and endogenous trehalose have the same protective effect on living body and biological molecules. Because the amount of endogenous trehalose existed in most living bodies so small that utilization of exogenous trehalose became increasingly important in the fields such as pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, agriculture and biotechnology. In addition to be excellent activity protective reagent of protein medicines, enzyme, vaccines and other bio-products, trehalose is the key important component of keeping cell activity and cosmetics moisture. Furthermore, trehalose is a unique food ingredient which can avoid the food degradation and then keep the fresh flavor of original food. So, as the sweetener, trehalose is widely used in food process.
Trehalose is only 45% as sweet as sucrose. It has a clean taste profile
Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar and will not take part in Mallard reactions with amino acids or proteins during the manufacturing processing and storage even at elevated temperatures.Thus, trehalose can be favorably used in food and beverage where heat treatment is required or storage at high temperature.
Perfect heat and acid tolerance
Trehalose is very stable to heat and acid during processing and storage, and would not become colored and broken down even heated for 30min at 100℃, pH3.0.
Low solubility and excellent crystalline
Water-solubility of trehalose is as high as maltose while the crystallinity is excellent, so it is easy to produce the low hygroscopical candy, coating, soft confectionery etc.
Some foods themselves are not hygroscopic, but their hygroscopicity can rapidly increase once sugars such as sucrose and maltose is added, and then foods’ original flavor and shelf life changed. Trehalose has a very low hygriscopicity and remains stable up to 95% relative humidity. Thus, trehalose can be used as sweetening in food process.
High Glass Transition Temperature
The glass transition temperature of trehalose is 120℃, which makes trehalose ideal as a protein protectant and ideally suited as a carrier for spray-dried flavors
Preventing starch deterioration
Trehalose has an excellent performance of preventing starch deterioration. So it can be favourably used in foods containing starch as main component, such as noodle, biscuit, rice, bakery and fried meat pie.
Preventing protein from denaturation
Trehalose can perfectly prevent protein from denaturation in freezing, storage, drying. Adding trehalose into various foods containing protein can effectively protect the original structure of protein molecules and the full flavor potential of products and texture sensations.
Suppress the unpleasant flavor
Some unpleasant flavor of foods, especially in sea food, are mainly caused by some chemical substances such as trimethylamine. However, the fresh sea food do not contain trimethylamine and it occurs only that the foods is decayed by microbes when storage. The less freshness, the more trimethylamine. Trehalose has the function of inhibiting the formation of such substances effectively and the addition of trehalose is before heat process. In addition, the main component of unpleasant odor of poultry and obsolete rice is aldehyde, which can also be suppressed by trehalose.
Protecting cell structure and keeping flesh effectively
Trehalose can efficiently prevent texture and cell structure from damage caused by drying and freezing when texture and cells of animals and plants are dehydrated and therefore extended their shelf life or keep their biological characteristics.
Improvement of flavor profile
Trehalose can strengthen the sweetness of the sweet food and improve the other formulated sweeteners meanwhile the off-flavors such as bitterness and astringent can be obviously minimized.
Suppress rancidity of lipid substance
Oxidation of lipid can produce peroxide and aldehyde which devalue the food while trehalose can effectively inhabit lipid decomposition and herein suppress rancidity.
Stabilization of biological enzyme
Trehalose has the property to stabilize the activity of SOD(superoxide dismutase) of anti-oxide materials such as Vitamin C and β-carotene contained in the materials and then remove excessive super-oxide ion.
Trehalose has been fully tested under both in vivo and in vitro cariogenic system, so it has substantially reduced cariogenic potential.
Supply with sustaining energy
Trehalose is metabolished to glucose but with a more balanced, blunt blood/glucose response. This unique property makes trehalose favorably suited for beverages and countlines formulated to provide sustainable energy and alleviate fatigue and stress.
Sweetness, white crystalline powder ,odorless
Residule of Ignition
Loss on drying
Total Plate Count